# 多线程

Base.Threads.nthreadsFunction
Threads.nthreads()

Get the number of threads available to the Julia process. This is the inclusive upper bound on threadid().

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Base.Threads.@threadsMacro
Threads.@threads

A macro to parallelize a for-loop to run with multiple threads. This spawns nthreads() number of threads, splits the iteration space amongst them, and iterates in parallel. A barrier is placed at the end of the loop which waits for all the threads to finish execution, and the loop returns.

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Base.Threads.AtomicType
Threads.Atomic{T}

Holds a reference to an object of type T, ensuring that it is only accessed atomically, i.e. in a thread-safe manner.

Only certain "simple" types can be used atomically, namely the primitive boolean, integer, and float-point types. These are Bool, Int8...Int128, UInt8...UInt128, and Float16...Float64.

New atomic objects can be created from a non-atomic values; if none is specified, the atomic object is initialized with zero.

Atomic objects can be accessed using the [] notation:

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

julia> x[] = 1
1

julia> x[]
1

Atomic operations use an atomic_ prefix, such as atomic_add!, atomic_xchg!, etc.

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Base.Threads.atomic_cas!Function
Threads.atomic_cas!(x::Atomic{T}, cmp::T, newval::T) where T

Atomically compare-and-set x

Atomically compares the value in x with cmp. If equal, write newval to x. Otherwise, leaves x unmodified. Returns the old value in x. By comparing the returned value to cmp (via ===) one knows whether x was modified and now holds the new value newval.

For further details, see LLVM's cmpxchg instruction.

This function can be used to implement transactional semantics. Before the transaction, one records the value in x. After the transaction, the new value is stored only if x has not been modified in the mean time.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

julia> x

julia> x
Base.Threads.Atomic{Int64}(2)
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Base.Threads.atomic_xchg!Function
Threads.atomic_xchg!(x::Atomic{T}, newval::T) where T

Atomically exchange the value in x

Atomically exchanges the value in x with newval. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw xchg instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

3

julia> x[]
2
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Base.Threads.atomic_add!Function
Threads.atomic_add!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T <: ArithmeticTypes

Atomically add val to x

Performs x[] += val atomically. Returns the old value. Not defined for Atomic{Bool}.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw add instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

3

julia> x[]
5
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Base.Threads.atomic_sub!Function
Threads.atomic_sub!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T <: ArithmeticTypes

Atomically subtract val from x

Performs x[] -= val atomically. Returns the old value. Not defined for Atomic{Bool}.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw sub instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

3

julia> x[]
1
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Base.Threads.atomic_and!Function
Threads.atomic_and!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically bitwise-and x with val

Performs x[] &= val atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw and instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

3

julia> x[]
2
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Base.Threads.atomic_nand!Function
Threads.atomic_nand!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically bitwise-nand (not-and) x with val

Performs x[] = ~(x[] & val) atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw nand instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(3)

3

julia> x[]
-3
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Base.Threads.atomic_or!Function
Threads.atomic_or!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically bitwise-or x with val

Performs x[] |= val atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw or instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(5)

5

julia> x[]
7
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Base.Threads.atomic_xor!Function
Threads.atomic_xor!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically bitwise-xor (exclusive-or) x with val

Performs x[] \$= val atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw xor instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(5)

5

julia> x[]
2
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Base.Threads.atomic_max!Function
Threads.atomic_max!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically store the maximum of x and val in x

Performs x[] = max(x[], val) atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw max instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(5)

5

julia> x[]
7
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Base.Threads.atomic_min!Function
Threads.atomic_min!(x::Atomic{T}, val::T) where T

Atomically store the minimum of x and val in x

Performs x[] = min(x[], val) atomically. Returns the old value.

For further details, see LLVM's atomicrmw min instruction.

Examples

julia> x = Threads.Atomic{Int}(7)

7

julia> x[]
5
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Base.Threads.atomic_fenceFunction
Threads.atomic_fence()

Insert a sequential-consistency memory fence

Inserts a memory fence with sequentially-consistent ordering semantics. There are algorithms where this is needed, i.e. where an acquire/release ordering is insufficient.

This is likely a very expensive operation. Given that all other atomic operations in Julia already have acquire/release semantics, explicit fences should not be necessary in most cases.

For further details, see LLVM's fence instruction.

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## 使用线程池的 ccal 方法（实验性）

Base.@threadcallMacro
@threadcall((cfunc, clib), rettype, (argtypes...), argvals...)

The @threadcall macro is called in the same way as ccall but does the work in a different thread. This is useful when you want to call a blocking C function without causing the main julia thread to become blocked. Concurrency is limited by size of the libuv thread pool, which defaults to 4 threads but can be increased by setting the UV_THREADPOOL_SIZE environment variable and restarting the julia process.

Note that the called function should never call back into Julia.

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## 同步原始类型

Base.lockFunction
lock(lock)

Acquire the lock when it becomes available. If the lock is already locked by a different task/thread, wait for it to become available.

Each lock must be matched by an unlock.

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Base.unlockFunction
unlock(lock)

Releases ownership of the lock.

If this is a recursive lock which has been acquired before, decrement an internal counter and return immediately.

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Base.trylockFunction
trylock(lock) -> Success (Boolean)

Acquire the lock if it is available, and return true if successful. If the lock is already locked by a different task/thread, return false.

Each successful trylock must be matched by an unlock.

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Base.Threads.SpinLockType
SpinLock()

Create a non-reentrant lock. Recursive use will result in a deadlock. Each lock must be matched with an unlock.

Test-and-test-and-set spin locks are quickest up to about 30ish contending threads. If you have more contention than that, perhaps a lock is the wrong way to synchronize.

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Base.SemaphoreType
Semaphore(sem_size)

Create a counting semaphore that allows at most sem_size acquires to be in use at any time. Each acquire must be matched with a release.

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Base.acquireFunction
acquire(s::Semaphore)

Wait for one of the sem_size permits to be available, blocking until one can be acquired.

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Base.releaseFunction
release(s::Semaphore)

Return one permit to the pool, possibly allowing another task to acquire it and resume execution.

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